Bell's palsy is a form of facial paralysis resulting from a dysfunction of the cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) causing an inability to control facial muscles on the affected side. Often the eye in the affected side cannot be closed. The eye must be protected from drying up, or the cornea may be permanently damaged, resulting in impaired vision. In some cases denture wearers experience some discomfort. The common presentation of this condition is a rapid onset of partial or complete paralysis that often occurs overnight. In rare cases , it can occur on both sides resulting in total facial paralysis.
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ADENOMYOSIS Symptoms, Causes & Treatments OVERVIEW Adenomyosis occurs when the tissue that normally lines the uterus (endometrial tissue) grows into the muscular wall of the uterus. The displaced tissue continues to act normally — thickening, breaking down and bleeding — during each menstrual cycle. An enlarged uterus and painful, heavy periods can result. The cause of adenomyosis remains unknown, but the disease usually resolves after menopause. For women who have severe discomfort from adenomyosis, hormonal treatments can help. Removal of the uterus (hysterectomy) cures adenomyosis SYMPTOMS Sometimes, adenomyosis causes no signs or symptoms or only mild discomfort. However, adenomyosis can cause: • Heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding. • Severe cramping or sharp, knifelike pelvic pain during menstruation (dysmenorrhea). • Chronic pelvic pain. Your uterus might get bigger. Although you might not know if your uterus is enlarged, you may notice that your lower abdomen feels tender or causes pelvic pressure. CAUSES The cause of adenomyosis isn't known. There have been many theories, including: • Invasive tissue growth. Some experts believe that adenomyosis results from the direct invasion of endometrial cells from the lining of the uterus into the muscle that forms the uterine walls. Uterine incisions made during an operation such as a cesarean section (C-section) might promote the direct invasion of the endometrial cells into the wall of the uterus. • Developmental origins. Other experts suspect that adenomyosis originates within the uterine muscle from endometrial tissue deposited there when the uterus first formed in the fetus. • Uterine inflammation related to childbirth. Another theory suggests a link between adenomyosis and childbirth. Inflammation of the uterine lining during the postpartum period might cause a break in the normal boundary of cells that line the uterus. Surgical procedures on the uterus can have a similar effect. • Stem cell origins. A recent theory proposes that bone marrow stem cells might invade the uterine muscle, causing adenomyosis. Regardless of how adenomyosis develops, its growth depends on the circulating estrogen in women's bodies. TREATMENTS Adenomyosis often goes away after menopause, so treatment might depend on how close you are to that stage of life. Treatment options for adenomyosis include: • Anti-inflammatory drugs. Your doctor might recommend anti-inflammatory medications, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), to control the pain. By starting an anti-inflammatory medicine one to two days before your period begins and taking it during your period, you can reduce menstrual blood flow and help relieve pain. • Hormone medications. Combined estrogen-progestin birth control pills or hormone-containing patches or vaginal rings might lessen heavy bleeding and pain associated with adenomyosis. Progestin-only contraception, such as an intrauterine device, or continuous-use birth control pills often lead to amenorrhea — the absence of your menstrual periods — which might provide some relief. • Hysterectomy. If your pain is severe and no other treatments have worked, your doctor might suggest surgery to remove your uterus. Removing your ovaries isn't necessary to control adenomyosis.
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Cardiac arrhythmia, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia or irregular heartbeat, is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow. A heartbeat that is too fast - above 100 beats per minute in adults - is called tachycardia and a heartbeat that is too slow - below 60 beats per minute - is called bradycardia. Many types of arrhythmia have no symptoms. When symptoms are present these may include palpitations or feeling a pause between heartbeats. More seriously there may be lightheadedness, passing out, shortness of breath, or chest pain. While most types of arrhythmia are not serious some predispose a person to complications such as stroke or heart failure. Others may result in cardiac arrest. There are four main types of arrhythmia: extra beats, supraventricular tachycardias, ventricular arrhythmias, and bradyarrhythmias. Extra beats include premature atrial contractions and premature ventricular contractions. Supraventricular tachycardias include atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Ventricular arrhythmias include ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. Arrhythmias are due to problems with the electrical conduction system of the heart. Arrhythmias may occur in children; however, the normal range for the heart rate is different and depends on age. A number of tests can help with diagnosis including an electrocardiogram (ECG) and holter monitor. Most arrhythmias can be effectively treated. Treatments may include medications, medical procedures such as a pacemaker, and surgery. Medications for a fast heart rate may include beta blockers or agents that attempt to restore a normal heart rhythm such as procainamide. This later group may have more significant side effects especially if taken for a long period of time. Pacemakers are often used for slow heart rates. Those with an irregular heartbeat are often treated with blood thinners to reduce the risk of complications. Those who have severe symptoms from an arrhythmia may be treated emergently with a jolt of electricity in the form of cardioversion or defibrillation.
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ACCUMULATION OF FLUID IN THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY (ASCITES) Symptoms, Causes & Treatments OVERVIEW Ascites is the buildup of an abnormal amount of fluid inside the abdomen (belly). This is a common problem in patients with cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver. Approximately 80% of patients with cirrhosis of the liver develop ascites. CAUSES Ascites is the end result of a series of events. Cirrhosis of the liver is the most common cause of ascites. When cirrhosis occurs, blood flow through the liver is blocked. This blockage causes an increase in the pressure in the main vein (the portal vein) that delivers blood from the digestive organs to the liver. This condition is called portal hypertension. Ascites occurs when portal hypertension develops. The kidneys cannot rid the body of enough sodium (salt) through urine. Not being able to rid the body of salt causes fluids to build up in the abdomen, resulting in ascites. SYMPTOMS Most people who develop ascites develop a large belly and experience a rapid gain in weight. Some people also develop swelling of the ankles and shortness of breath. TREATMENTS Limit the amount of salt in your diet. The most important step to treating ascites is to drastically reduce your salt intake. Recommended limits are 2,000 mg or less a day. Seeing a nutritional specialist (dietitian) is helpful especially because the salt content in foods is difficult to determine. Salt substitutes – that do not contain potassium -- can be used. Often, patients will require diuretics ("water pills") to treat ascites. Take these pills as prescribed. Common diuretics are spironolactone (Aldactone®) and/or furosemide (Lasix®). These water pills can cause problems with your electrolytes (sodium, potassium) and kidney function (creatinine). Taking water pills is not a substitute for reducing your salt intake. Both are needed to treat ascites. Other, increasingly more aggressive treatments include: Paracentesis as a treatment: Sometimes fluids continue to build up in the abdomen despite use of diuretics and a restricted salt diet. In these cases, patients may need paracentesis to remove this large amount of excess fluid. Surgery: Surgical placement of a shunt (tube) between the main vein (portal vein) and smaller veins is sometimes used as a treatment. A radiologist can place a shunt directly through the liver, thereby relieving portal hypertension and diminishing ascites. By increasing blood flow, all organs of the body are better able to perform their function. For example, in patients with ascites, improved kidney function helps rid the body of excess sodium (salt) and prevent the buildup of fluids. Liver transplant: This approach is reserved for patients with very severe cirrhosis whose livers are failing.
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Bacterial vaginosis (BV), also known as vaginal bacteriosis or Gardnerella vaginitis, is a disease of the vagina caused by excessive growth of bacteria. Common symptoms include increased vaginal discharge that often smells like fish. The discharge is usually white or gray in color. Burning with urination may occur. Itching is uncommon. Occasionally there may be no symptoms. Having BV increases the risk of infection by a number of other sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. It also increases the risk of early delivery among pregnant women. BV is caused by an imbalance of the naturally occurring bacteria in the vagina. There is a change in the most common type of bacteria and a hundred to thousandfold increase in total numbers of bacteria present. Typically bacteria other than Lactobaccili become more common. Risk factors include douching, new or multiple sex partners, antibiotics, and using an intrauterine device among others. However, it is not considered a sexually transmitted infection. Diagnosis is suspected based on the symptoms and may be verified by testing the vaginal discharge and finding a higher than normal vaginal pH and large numbers of bacteria. BV is often confused with a vaginal yeast infection or infection with Trichomonas.
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Black hairy tongue (BHT, also termed lingua villosa nigra) refers to a condition of the tongue where the filiform papillae elongate with black or brown discoloration, giving a black and hairy appearance. The appearance may be alarming, but it is a harmless condition. Predisposing factors include smoking, xerostomia (dry mouth), soft diet, poor oral hygiene and certain medications. Management is by improving oral hygiene, especially scraping or brushing the tongue.
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Amenorrhoea (BE), amenorrhea (AmE), or amenorrhœa, is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age. Physiological states of amenorrhoea are seen, most commonly, during pregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding), the latter also forming the basis of a form of contraception known as the lactational amenorrhoea method. Outside of the reproductive years there is absence of menses during childhood and after menopause. Amenorrhoea is a symptom with many potential causes. Primary amenorrhoea (menstruation cycles never starting) may be caused by developmental problems such as the congenital absence of the uterus, failure of the ovary to receive or maintain egg cells. Also, delay in pubertal development will lead to primary amenorrhoea. It is defined as an absence of secondary sexual characteristics by age 14 with no menarche or normal secondary sexual characteristics but no menarche by 16 years of age. Secondary amenorrhoea (menstruation cycles ceasing) is often caused by hormonal disturbances from the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, from premature menopause or intrauterine scar formation. It is defined as the absence of menses for three months in a woman with previously normal menstruation or nine months for women with a history of oligomenorrhoea.
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Amyloidosis is a rare disease that results from the buildup of misfolded proteins known as amyloids. When proteins that are normally dissolvable in water fold to become amyloids, they become insoluble and deposit in organs or tissues, disrupting normal function. The type of protein that is misfolded and the organ or tissue in which the misfolded proteins are deposited determine the clinical manifestations of amyloidosis. There are four main types of amyloidosis, each due to the deposition of a specific protein. The most common type is AL amyloidosis, caused by the deposition of light chain proteins produced by plasma cells in different disease states. The second most common is AA amyloidosis due to the accumulation of S amyloid A protein or SAA, which occurs in association with chronic infections - e.g. tuberculosis - or inflammatory illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis. The third and the fourth type are due to the deposition of a genetically defective or normal form of a protein called transthyretin respectively. Other minor forms of amyloid are also known.
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OVERVIEW An abdominal aortic aneurysm is an enlarged area in the lower part of the aorta, the major blood vessel that supplies blood to the body. The aorta, about the thickness of a garden hose, runs from your heart through the center of your chest and abdomen. SYMPTOMS Abdominal aortic aneurysms often grow slowly and usually without symptoms, making them difficult to detect. Some aneurysms will never rupture. Many start small and stay small, although many expand over time. Others expand quickly. Predicting how fast an abdominal aortic aneurysm may enlarge is difficult. As an abdominal aortic aneurysm enlarges, some people may notice: • A pulsating feeling near the navel • Deep, constant pain in your abdomen or on the side of your abdomen • Back pain If you have any of these signs and symptoms, such as sudden severe back or abdominal pain, get immediate emergency help. CAUSES Most aortic aneurysms occur in the part of your aorta that's in your abdomen. Although the exact cause of abdominal aortic aneurysms is unknown, a number of factors may play a role, including: • Tobacco use. • Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). • High blood pressure • Blood vessel diseases in the aorta. • Infection in the aorta. • Trauma. • Heredity. TREATMENT The goal of treatment is to prevent your aneurysm from rupturing. Generally, your treatment options are medical monitoring or surgery. Your doctor's decision depends on the size of the aortic aneurysm and how fast it's growing.
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Bursitis is the inflammation of one or more bursae (small sacs) of synovial fluid in the body. They are lined with a synovial membrane that secretes a lubricating synovial fluid. There are more than 150 bursae in the human body. The bursae rest at the points where internal functionaries, such as muscles and tendons, slide across bone. Healthy bursae create a smooth, almost frictionless functional gliding surface making normal movement painless. When bursitis occurs, however, movement relying on the inflamed bursa becomes difficult and painful. Moreover, movement of tendons and muscles over the inflamed bursa aggravates its inflammation, perpetuating the problem. Muscle can also be stiffened.
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Autoimmune hepatitis, formerly called lupoid hepatitis, is a chronic, autoimmune disease of the liver that occurs when the body's immune system attacks liver cells causing the liver to be inflamed. Common initial symptoms include fatigue or muscle aches or signs of acute liver inflammation including fever, jaundice, and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Individuals with autoimmune hepatitis often have no initial symptoms and the disease is detected by abnormal liver function tests. Anomalous presentation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II on the surface of liver cells, possibly due to genetic predisposition or acute liver infection, causes a cell-mediated immune response against the body's own liver, resulting in autoimmune hepatitis. This abnormal immune response results in inflammation of the liver, which can lead to further symptoms and complications such as fatigue and cirrhosis. The disease may occur in any ethnic group and at any age, but is most often diagnosed in patients between age 40 and 50.
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A brain injury is any injury occurring in the brain of a living organism. Brain injuries can be classified along several dimensions. Primary and secondary brain injury are ways to classify the injury processes that occur in brain injury, while focal and diffuse brain injury are ways to classify the extent or location of injury in the brain. Specific forms of brain injury include: Brain damage, the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. Traumatic brain injury, damage that occurs when an outside force traumatically injures the brain. Stroke, a vascular event causing damage in the brain. Acquired brain injury, damage to the brain that occurs after birth, regardless of whether it is traumatic or nontraumatic, or whether due to an outside or internal cause.
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ABDOMINAL ADHESIONS Symptoms, Causes & Treatments OVERVIEW Abdominal adhesions are important because they are a common cause of abdominal symptoms, particularly abdominal pain and they can cause bowel blockages or obstruction. The term adhesions refers to the formation of scar tissue between bowel loops (small or large intestine) and the inner lining of the abdominal wall (peritoneal lining) or with other organs within the abdominal cavity (liver, gallbladder, uterus and its attached Fallopian tubes and ovaries, and urinary bladder). Adhesions can also form between loops of the small and large intestine. SYMPTOMS Although abdominal pain and other symptoms of intestinal obstruction are by far the most common effect of adhesions, another important consequence is infertility in women. The infertility is believed to be caused by adhesions involving the Fallopian tubes that results in kinking and obstruction, thereby preventing the eggs that are released from the ovary from reaching the uterus. Symptoms caused by adhesions may vary from specific (typical) to non-specific. When the symptoms are typical, the diagnosis is easy since adhesions are the most common cause of intestinal obstruction. The typical symptoms of obstruction are abdominal discomfort located around the belly button (umbilicus) that is cramp-like, followed by distention of the abdomen. Symptoms often are worsened by eating. There may be reduction in the amount of flatus (gas) or stool that is passed and, with prolonged obstruction, nausea and vomiting may occur. When the obstruction is incomplete or intermittent, symptoms may be less severe with abdominal pain or cramping occurring only after meals. Although uncommon, obstruction also may manifest primarily as nausea with or without vomiting, especially when the obstruction occurs in the proximal small intestine near the stomach. It is important to remember, however, that most adhesions do not cause symptoms. TREATMENTS The treatment of adhesions is straight-forward. Patients undergo either laparoscopic or open surgery and the adhesions are cut by scalpel or electrical current (lysis). The problem is that adhesions have a tendency to reform, and some individuals have a propensity to form adhesions. Laparoscopic surgery results in fewer adhesions and, theoretically, is a better option; however, whether the adhesions are lysed at laparoscopic or open surgery, the inflammation caused by the process of cutting can result in recurrent adhesions.
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ABDOMINAL MIGRAINES Symptoms, Causes & Treatments OVERVIEW Abdominal migraines aren't headaches. As their name suggests, they make your belly ache instead. But they often happen as a reaction to the same triggers as migraine headaches. They can hurt a lot and cause nausea, cramps, and often vomiting. Kids whose family members get migraines are more likely to get abdominal migraines. About 2 in 100 children do; they're rare in adults. More girls get them than boys. And kids who have abdominal migraines typically get migraine headaches when they get older. SYMPTOMS It will hurt in the center of your child's body or around their belly button (not their sides), what doctors call midline abdominal pain. Your little one could also: • Feel queasy or throw up • Be pale or flushed • Yawn, be drowsy, or have little energy • Lose their appetite or be unable to eat • Have dark shadows under their eyes Abdominal migraines are often sudden and quite severe. They can hit without any warning signs. The pain may go away after an hour, or it may last as long as 3 days. CAUSES We don't know their exact cause. One theory is that changes in the levels of two compounds your body makes, histamine and serotonin, are responsible. Experts think that being upset or worried can affect them. TREATMENTS Sometimes, simply knowing what the problem is makes it easier to deal with. Because we don't know much about abdominal migraines, doctors may treat them like other migraines. But they usually don't prescribe drugs unless the symptoms are very bad or happen a lot.
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ABNORMAL VAGNIAL BLEEDING Symptoms, Causes and Treatments OVERVIEW Abnormal vaginal bleeding is any vaginal bleeding unrelated to normal menstruation. This type of bleeding may include spotting of small amounts of blood between periods — often seen on toilet tissue after wiping — or extremely heavy periods in which you soak a pad or tampon every one to two hours for two or more hours. Normal vaginal bleeding, or menstruation, occurs every 21 to 35 days when the uterus sheds its lining, marking the start of a new reproductive cycle. A menstrual period may last for just a few days or up to a week. Your flow may be heavy or light and still considered normal. Menstrual cycles tend to be longer for teens and for women nearing menopause, and menstrual flow may also be heavier at those ages. CAUSES Abnormal vaginal bleeding can relate to an issue with your reproductive system (a gynecologic condition) or to other medical problems or certain medications. If you have reached menopause — defined as 12 consecutive months, give or take, without a menstrual period — subsequent vaginal bleeding may be a cause for concern and should be evaluated. Possible causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding include: • Cancers and precancerous conditions • Cervical cancer • Endometrial cancer (uterine cancer) • Endometrial hyperplasia • Ovarian cancer • Uterine sarcoma • Vaginal cancer TREATMENT This will depend on the cause of the abnormal uterine bleeding -- if a chronic illness or a blood disorder is at the root of your symptoms, treating that can help. Your treatment also can depend on whether you plan to have children. It might not be safe to get pregnant after some treatments, while others can make it impossible. If you’re close to menopause, your doctor may want to take a wait-and-see approach because your symptoms may get better on their own. Drugs are usually the first thing your doctor will try: Hormones. Birth control pills and other hormone treatments may be able to give you regular menstrual cycles and lighter periods. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa). These stop your body from making certain hormones. They can shrink fibroids for a while, but they’re usually used along with other treatments. NSAIDS. If you take anti-inflammatories like ibuprofen or naproxen a few days before your period starts, they may help lighten the bleeding. Tranexamic acid. This is a pill that helps your blood clot and can control heavy uterine bleeding. Sometimes surgery can be needed to stop the bleeding: Endometrial ablation. This uses heat, cold, electricity, or a laser to destroy the lining of the uterus. It may end your periods entirely. You probably won’t be able to get pregnant after having it done, but it can be very dangerous if you do. You’ll need to use birth control until menopause. Myomectomy or uterine artery embolization. If you have fibroids, your doctor may take them out or cut off the vessels that supply them with blood. Hysterectomy. This is when your uterus is taken out. You may need a hysterectomy if your fibroids are very large or you have endometrial or uterine cancer. Otherwise, it’s a last resort when other treatments haven’t worked.
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Whiplash is a non-medical term describing a range of injuries to the neck caused by or related to a sudden distortion of the neck associated with extension, although the exact injury mechanism(s) remain unknown. The term "whiplash" is a colloquialism. "Cervical acceleration-deceleration" (CAD) describes the mechanism of the injury, while the term "whiplash associated disorders" (WAD) describes the injury sequelae and symptoms Whiplash is commonly associated with motor vehicle accidents, usually when the vehicle has been hit in the rear; however, the injury can be sustained in many other ways, including headbanging, bungee jumping and falls. It is one of the main injuries covered by insurance. In the United Kingdom, 430,000 people made an insurance claim for whiplash in 2007, accounting for 14% of every driver's premium.
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A wart is a small, rough growth resembling a cauliflower or a solid blister. It typically occurs on humans' hands or feet but often in other locations. Warts are caused by a viral infection, specifically by one of the many types of human papillomavirus (HPV). There are as many as 10 varieties of warts, the most common considered to be mostly harmless. It is possible to get warts from others; they are contagious and usually enter the body in an area of broken skin.
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Aspergillosis is the name given to a wide variety of diseases caused by infection by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. The majority of cases occur in people with underlying illnesses such as tuberculosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but with otherwise healthy immune systems. Most commonly, aspergillosis occurs in the form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), aspergilloma or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). Some forms are intertwined; for example ABPA and simple aspergilloma can progress to CPA. Other, non-invasive manifestations include fungal sinusitis (both allergic in nature and with established fungal balls), otomycosis (ear infection), keratitis (eye infection) and onychomycosis (nail infection). In most instances these are less severe, and curable with effective antifungal treatment. People with deficient immune systems—such as patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, chemotherapy for leukaemia, or AIDS—are at risk of more disseminated disease. Acute invasive aspergillosis occurs when the immune system fails to prevent Aspergillus spores from entering the bloodstream via the lungs. Without the body mounting an effective immune response, fungal cells are free to disseminate throughout the body and can infect major organs such as the heart and kidneys. The most frequently identified pathogen is Aspergillus fumigatus—a ubiquitous organism that is capable of living under extensive environmental stress. It is estimated that most humans inhale thousands of Aspergillus spores daily, but they do not affect most people’s health due to effective immune responses. Taken together, the major chronic, invasive and allergic forms of aspergillosis account for around 600,000 deaths annually worldwide.
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The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that conducts signals from the spinal cord, which is housed in the spinal canal of the vertebral column (or spine), to the shoulder, arm and hand. These nerves originate in the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth cervical (C5–C8), and first thoracic (T1) spinal nerves, and innervate the muscles and skin of the chest, shoulder, arm and hand. Brachial plexus injuries, or lesions, are caused by damage to those nerves. Brachial plexus injuries, or lesions, can occur as a result of shoulder trauma, tumours, or inflammation. The rare Parsonage-Turner Syndrome causes brachial plexus inflammation without obvious injury, but with nevertheless disabling symptoms. But in general, brachial plexus lesions can be classified as either traumatic or obstetric. Obstetric injuries may occur from mechanical injury involving shoulder dystocia during difficult childbirth. Traumatic injury may arise from several causes. "The brachial plexus may be injured by falls from a height on to the side of the head and shoulder, whereby the nerves of the plexus are violently stretched....The brachial plexus may also be injured by direct violence or gunshot wounds, by violent traction on the arm, or by efforts at reducing a dislocation of the shoulder joint".
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Acne vulgaris (or simply acne) is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles become clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin. Acne is characterized by areas of blackheads, whiteheads, pimples, and greasy skin, and may result in scarring. The resulting appearance can lead to anxiety, reduced self-esteem and, in extreme cases, depression or thoughts of suicide. Genetics is thought to be the cause in 80% of cases. The role of diet as a cause is unclear and neither cleanliness nor sunlight appear to be involved. However, cigarette smoking does increase the risk of developing acne, and also worsens its severity. Acne primarily affects skin with a greater number of oil glands, including the face, upper part of the chest, and back. During puberty, in both sexes, acne is often brought on by an increase in androgens such as testosterone. Excessive growth of the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes, which is normally present on the skin, is often involved
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West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. It is found in temperate and tropical regions of the world. It was first identified in the West Nile subregion in the East African nation of Uganda in 1937. Prior to the mid-1990s, WNV disease occurred only sporadically and was considered a minor risk for humans, until an outbreak in Algeria in 1994, with cases of WNV-caused encephalitis, and the first large outbreak in Romania in 1996, with a high number of cases with neuroinvasive disease. WNV has now spread globally, with the first case in the Western Hemisphere being identified in New York City in 1999; over the next five years, the virus spread across the continental United States, north into Canada, and southward into the Caribbean islands and Latin America. WNV also spread to Europe, beyond the Mediterranean Basin, and a new strain of the virus was identified in Italy in 2012. WNV is occurs on an ongoing basis in Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, Canada and in the United States. In 2012 the US experienced one of its worst epidemics in which 286 people died, with the state of Texas being hard hit by this virus,
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Dysautonomia (or autonomic dysfunction, autonomic neuropathy) is an umbrella term for various conditions in which the autonomic nervous system (ANS) does not work correctly. Dysautonomia is a type of neuropathy affecting the nerves that carry information from the brain and spinal cord to the heart, bladder, intestines, sweat glands, pupils, and blood vessels. Dysautonomia may be experienced in a number of ways, depending on the organ system involved, for example difficulty adapting to changes in posture, or digestive symptoms. The diagnosis is achieved through functional testing of the autonomic nervous system, focusing on the organ system affected. Investigations may be performed to identify underlying disease processes that may have led to the autonomic neuropathy that is causing the dysautonomia. Symptomatic treatment is available for many symptoms associated with autonomic neuropathy, and some disease processes can be treated directly.
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Amoebiasis, also known as amebiasis or entamoebiasis, is an infection caused by any of the amoebas of the Entamoeba group. Symptoms are most common upon infection by Entamoeba histolytica. Amoebiasis can present with no, mild, or severe symptoms. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, mild diarrhoea, bloody diarrhea or severe colitis with tissue death and perforation. This last complication may cause peritonitis. People affected may develop anemia due to loss of blood. Invasion of the intestinal lining causes amoebic bloody diarrhea or amoebic colitis. If the parasite reaches the bloodstream it can spread through the body, most frequently ending up in the liver where it causes amoebic liver abscesses. Liver abscesses can occur without previous diarrhea. Cysts of Entamoeba can survive for up to a month in soil or for up to 45 minutes under fingernails. It is important to differentiate between amoebiasis and bacterial colitis. The preferred diagnostic method it through faecal examination under microscope, but requires a skilled microscopist and may not be reliable when excluding infection. Increased white blood cell count is present in severe cases, but not in mild ones. The most accurate test is for antibodies in the blood, but it may remain positive following treatment.
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Anosmia (/ænˈɒzmiə/) is the inability to perceive odor or a lack of functioning olfaction—the loss of the sense of smell. Anosmia may be temporary, but some anosmia (including traumatic anosmia) can be permanent. Anosmia is due to a number of factors, including an inflammation of the nasal mucosa, blockage of nasal passages or a destruction of one temporal lobe. Inflammation is due to chronic mucosa changes in the paranasal sinus lining and the middle and superior turbinates. Since anosmia causes inflammatory changes in the nasal passageways, it is treated by simply reducing the presence of inflammation. It can be caused by chronic meningitis and neurosyphilis that would increase intracranial pressure over a long period of time, and in some cases by ciliopathy including ciliopathy due to primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome, Afzelius' syndrome or Siewert's syndrome). Many patients may experience unilateral anosmia, often as a result of minor head trauma. This type of anosmia is normally only detected if both of the nostrils are tested separately. Using this method of testing each nostril separately will often show a reduced or even completely absent sense of smell in either one nostril or both, something which is often not revealed if both nostrils are simultaneously tested. A related term, hyposmia, refers to a decreased ability to smell, while hyperosmia refers to an increased ability to smell. Some people may be anosmic for one particular odor. This is known as "specific anosmia". The absence of the sense of smell from birth is called congenital anosmia.
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Wilms (/vɪlmz/) tumor, Wilms' tumor, or nephroblastoma is a cancer of the kidneys that typically occurs in children, rarely in adults. It is named after Dr. Max Wilms, the German surgeon (1867–1918) who first described it. Approximately 500 cases are diagnosed in the U.S. annually. The majority (75%) occur in otherwise normal children; a minority (25%) are associated with other developmental abnormalities. It is highly responsive to treatmeWilms (/vɪlmz/) tumor, Wilms' tumor, or nephroblastoma is a cancer of the kidneys that typically occurs in children, rarely in adults. It is named after Dr. Max Wilms, the German surgeon (1867–1918) who first described it. Approximately 500 cases are diagnosed in the U.S. annually. The majority (75%) occur in otherwise normal children; a minority (25%) are associated with other developmental abnormalities. It is highly responsive to treatment, with about 90% of patients surviving at least five years.nt, with about 90% of patients surviving at least five years.
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Vocal cord paresis (or paralysis) is weakness of one or both vocal folds. Symptoms of paresis include hoarseness; vocal fatigue; mild to severe reduction in vocal volume; pain in the throat when speaking; shortness of breath; aspiration (food or liquids going down the trachea) with frequent resultant coughing, and in extreme cases may cause death. Gargling fluids may also become difficult. Vocal cord paresis can greatly impact daily life, employment, job choice, social interactions, and leisure time pursuits. Reduced vocal cord mobility may decrease the effectiveness of coughing, swallowing, or sneezing in removing mucosal wastes from the laryngeal area. The resultant accumulations may allow for viral and bacterial colonization with an increased tendency for infections and throat discomfort.
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Blepharitis (/blɛfərˈaɪtᵻs/ blef-ər-eye-tis) is a common eye condition characterized by chronic inflammation of the eyelid, usually where eyelashes grow, resulting in inflamed, irritated, itchy, and reddened eyelids. A number of diseases and conditions can lead to blepharitis. It can be caused by the oil glands at the base of the eyelashes becoming clogged, a bacterial infection, allergies, or other conditions. The severity and course can vary. Onset can be acute, resolving without treatment within 2–4 weeks (this can be greatly reduced with lid hygiene), but more generally is a long-standing chronic inflammation of varying severity. It may be classified as seborrhoeic, staphylococcal, mixed, posterior or meibomitis, or parasitic. It usually does not cause permanent damage.
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Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to any type of Candida (a type of yeast). When it affects the mouth, it is commonly called thrush. Signs and symptoms include white patches on the tongue or other areas of the mouth and throat. Other symptoms may include soreness and problems swallowing. When it affects the vagina, it is commonly called a yeast infection. Signs and symptoms include genital itching, burning, and sometimes a white "cottage cheese-like" discharge from the vagina. Less commonly the penis may be affected, resulting in itchiness. Very rarely, the infection may become invasive spreading throughout the body, resulting in fevers along with other symptoms depending on the parts of the body affected.
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Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a disorder arising in the inner ear. Its symptoms are repeated episodes of positional vertigo, that is, of a spinning sensation caused by changes in the position of the head. BPPV is the most common cause of the symptoms of vertigo.
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Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a personality disorder. The essential feature include a pattern of impulsivity and instability of behaviors, interpersonal relationships, and self-image. There may be uncontrollable anger and depression. The pattern is present by early adulthood and occurs across a variety of situations and contexts. Other symptoms usually include intense fears of abandonment, extreme anger, and irritability, the reason for which others have difficulty understanding. People with BPD often engage in idealization and devaluation of others, alternating between high positive regard and great disappointment. Self-harm, suicidal behavior, and substance abuse are common. There is evidence that abnormalities of the frontolimbic networks are associated with many of the symptoms. The disorder is recognized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Since a personality disorder is a pervasive, enduring, and inflexible pattern of maladaptive inner experiences and pathological behavior, there is a general reluctance to diagnose personality disorders before adolescence or early adulthood. However, some practitioners emphasize that without early treatment, the symptoms may worsen. There is an ongoing debate about the terminology of this disorder, especially the suitability of the word "borderline". The ICD-10 manual refers to the disorder as emotionally unstable personality disorder and has similar diagnostic criteria. In the DSM-5, the name of the disorder remains the same as in the previous editions.[
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ADENOIDITIS Symptoms, Causes & Treatments OVERVIEW Everyone gets a sore throat from time to time, and sometimes the tonsils in your mouth can become infected. However, tonsils are not the only vulnerable glands in your mouth. Adenoids, located higher up in the mouth -- behind the nose and roof of the mouth -- can also get infected. Enlarged and inflamed adenoids -- called adenoiditis -- can make breathing difficult and lead to recurring respiratory infections. Even though adenoids help filter out germs from your body, sometimes they can get overwhelmed by bacteria and become infected. When this happens they also get inflamed and swollen. This condition is called adenoiditis. It is most commonly seen in children, but sometimes affect adults. SYMPTOMS Symptoms of adenoiditis can vary depending on what is causing the infection, but may include: • Sore throat. • Stuffy nose. • Swollen glands in the neck. • Ear pain and other ear problems. When the nose is stuffy, breathing through it can be a challenge. Other symptoms of adenoiditis related to nasal congestion include: • Breathing through the mouth. • Speaking with a nasal sound, as if you are speaking with a pinched nose. • Difficulty sleeping. • Snoring or sleep apnea (a condition where you stop breathing for a short amount of time during sleep). TREATMENTS Adenoiditis is treated with antibiotics. However, if your child has frequent infections, including ear and sinus infections, or antibiotics do not help, or if your child has ongoing breathing problems, surgery may be needed to remove the adenoids. This procedure is called an adenoidectomy. Your child's doctor may also recommend the tonsils be removed at the same time since adenoiditis and tonsillitis often go hand in hand. Surgery to remove the tonsils is called a tonsillectomy. Together, you and your child's doctor can discuss the pros and cons of surgery and determine if it is necessary.
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ENDOMETRIAL ABLATION Symptoms, Causes and Treatments OVERVIEW Endometrial ablation is a procedure that surgically destroys (ablates) the lining of your uterus (endometrium). The goal of endometrial ablation is to reduce menstrual flow. In some women, menstrual flow may stop completely. No incisions are needed for endometrial ablation. Your doctor inserts slender tools through the passageway between your vagina and uterus (cervix). The tools vary, depending on the method used to ablate the endometrium. They might include extreme cold, heated fluids, microwave energy or high-energy radiofrequencies. WHY IT'S DONE? Endometrial ablation is a treatment for excessive menstrual blood loss. Your doctor might recommend endometrial ablation if you have: • Unusually heavy periods, sometimes defined as soaking a pad or tampon every two hours or less • Bleeding that lasts longer than eight days • Anemia from excessive blood loss To reduce menstrual bleeding, doctors generally start by prescribing medications or an intrauterine device (IUD). Endometrial ablation might be an option if these other treatments don't help or if you're not able to have other therapies. Endometrial ablation generally isn't recommended for postmenopausal women or women who have: • Certain abnormalities of the uterus • Cancer of the uterus, or an increased risk of uterine cancer • An active pelvic infection RISKS Complications of endometrial ablation are rare and can include: • Pain, bleeding or infection • Heat or cold damage to nearby organs • A puncture injury of the uterine wall from surgical instruments RESULTS It might take a few months to see the final results, but endometrial ablation usually reduces the amount of blood lost during menstruation. Most women will have lighter periods, and some will stop having periods entirely. Endometrial ablation isn't a sterilization procedure, so you should continue to use contraception. Pregnancy might still be possible, but it will likely be hazardous and end in miscarriage.
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Anal cancer is a cancer (malignant tumor) which arises from the anus, the distal opening of the gastrointestinal tract. It is a distinct entity from the more common colorectal cancer. Anal cancer is typically an anal squamous cell carcinoma that arises near the squamocolumnar junction, often linked to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. It may be keratinizing (basaloid) or non-keratinizing (cloacogenic). Other types of anal cancer are adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, sarcoma or melanoma. From data collected 2004-2010, the relative five year survival rate in the United States is 65.5%, though individual rates may vary depending upon the stage of cancer at diagnosis and the response to treatment.[
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Leptospirosis (also known as field fever, rat catcher's yellows, and pretibial fever among others names) is an infection caused by corkscrew-shaped bacteria called Leptospira. Signs and symptoms can range from none to mild such as headaches, muscle pains, and fevers; to severe with bleeding from the lungs or meningitis. If the infection causes the person to turn yellow, have kidney failure and bleeding, it is then known as Weil's disease. If it causes lots of bleeding from the lungs it is known as severe pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome.
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ADENOVIRUS INFECTIONS AD-14 Symptoms, Causes & Treatments OVERVIEW Adenoviruses are a group of common viruses that infect the lining of your eyes, airways and lungs, intestines, urinary tract, and nervous system. They're common causes of fever, coughs, sore throats, diarrhea, and pink eye. Infections happen in children more often than in adults, but anyone can get them. Most kids will have at least one type of adenovirus infection by the time they’re 10. The infections usually cause only mild symptoms and get better on their own in a few days. But they can be more serious in people with weak immune systems, especially children. SYMPTOMS Each type of adenovirus can affect you differently: • Bronchitis : Cough, runny nose, fever, chills • Colds and other respiratory infections: Stuffy and runny nose, cough, sore throat, and swollen glands • Croup: Barking cough, trouble breathing, high-pitched sound when breathing in • Ear infection : Ear pain, irritability, fever • Pink eye (conjunctivitis): Red eyes, discharge from your eyes, tearing, feeling like there's something in your eye • Pneumonia : Fever, cough, trouble breathing • Stomach and intestinal infections: Diarrhea, vomiting, headache, fever, stomach cramps • Swelling of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis and encephalitis): Headache, fever, stiff neck, nausea, and vomiting (this is rare) • Urinary tract infections: Burning and pain while urinating, frequent need to go, blood in your urine TREATMENTS Antibiotics won't help adenovirus infections because these drugs only kill bacteria. Children often get over the illness on their own within a few days. Some infections, like pink eye or pneumonia, can last for a week or more. Kids with a weak immune system may need treatment in the hospital to help them recover. You can do some things to help your child feel better: • Give plenty of liquids. Kids lose fluids from fever, vomiting, and diarrhea. They can get dehydrated. Water or 100% fruit juice are the best choices to keep kids hydrated. You might also try a children's solution that has electrolytes. • Clear congestion. Help your child blow her nose often. For an infant, put a few drops of saline spray or drops into her nose. Then suction out mucus with a bulb syringe. • Turn on a cool-mist humidifier. The moisture will loosen congestion and help your child breathe more easily. • Bring down a fever. Ask your doctor if you can give your child acetaminophen or ibuprofen to relieve aches and fever. Don't give children products that contain aspirin, which can lead to a rare but serious condition called Reye syndrome.
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Angular cheilitis (AC), also known as rhagades, perlèche, cheilosis, angular cheilosis, commissural cheilitis, or angular stomatitis, is inflammation of one, or more commonly both, of the corners of the mouth. It is a type of cheilitis (inflammation of the lips) and is the second most common type of lip infection. Angular cheilitis often represents an opportunistic infection of fungi and/or bacteria, with multiple local and systemic predisposing factors being involved in the initiation and persistence of the lesion. Such factors include nutritional deficiencies, overclosure of the mouth, dry mouth, a lip-licking habit, drooling, immunosuppression, and others, such as the wearing of poor fitted dentures. Treatment for angular cheilitis varies based on the exact causes of the condition in each case, but often an antifungal cream is used among other measures. It is a fairly common problem, and is more prevalent in people without any natural teeth who wear dentures, and in elderly people, although it may also occur in children.
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Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as atopic eczema, is a type of inflammation of the skin (dermatitis). It results in itchy, red, swollen, and cracked skin. Clear fluid may come from the affected areas, which often thicken over time. It typically starts in childhood with changing severity over the years. In children under one year of age much of the body may be affected. As they get older the back of the knees and front of the elbows are the most common area for the rash. In adults the hands and feet are most affected. Scratching worsens symptoms and affected people have an increased risk of skin infections. Many people with atopic dermatitis develop hay fever or asthma. The cause is unknown but believed to involve genetics, immune system dysfunction, environmental exposures, and difficulties with the permeability of the skin. If one identical twin is affected, there is an 85% chance the other also has the condition. Those who live in cities and dry climates are more commonly affected. Exposure to chemicals or frequent hand washing makes symptoms worse. While emotional stress may make the symptoms worse it is not a cause. The disorder is not contagious. The diagnosis is typically based on the signs and symptoms. Other diseases that must be excluded before making a diagnosis include contact dermatitis, psoriasis, and seborrheic dermatitis.
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Arachnoiditis is an inflammatory condition of the arachnoid mater or 'arachnoid', one of the membranes known as meninges that surround and protect the nerves of the central nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. The arachnoid can become inflamed because of adverse reactions to chemicals, infection from bacteria or viruses, as the result of direct injury to the spine, chronic compression of spinal nerves, complications from spinal surgery or other invasive spinal procedures, or the accidental intrathecal injection of steroids intended for the epidural space. Inflammation can sometimes lead to the formation of scar tissue and adhesion that can make the spinal nerves "stick" together, a condition where such tissue develops in and between the leptomeninges. The condition can be extremely painful, especially when progressing to adhesive arachnoiditis. Another form of the condition is arachnoiditis ossificans, in which the arachnoid becomes ossified, or turns to bone, and is thought to be a late-stage complication of the adhesive form of arachnoiditis.
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Achondroplasia is a common cause of dwarfism. It occurs as a sporadic mutation in approximately 80% of cases (associated with advanced paternal age) or it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. People with achondroplasia have short stature, with an average adult height of 131 centimeters (52 inches) for males and 123 centimeters (48 inches) for females. Achondroplastic adults are known to be as short as 62.8 cm (24.7 in). If both parents of a child have achondroplasia, and both parents pass on the mutant gene, then it is very unlikely that the homozygous child will live past a few months of its life. The prevalence is approximately 1 in 25,000.[
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AGRANULOCYTOSIS Symptoms, Causes & Treatments OVERVIEW Granulocytes, also known as neutrophils, are white blood cells that make up part of a person’s immune system. These cells contain enzymes that can kill bacteria and other organisms and break down substances that may harm the body. Without granulocytes, a person has a higher risk of developing frequent or chronic (long-term) infections. Agranulocytosis (lack of granulocytes) is a condition in which the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is less than 100 neutrophils per microliter of blood. Normally, there are at least 1500 neutrophils per microliter of blood. For granulocyte (neutrophil) counts between 100 and 1500 per microliter of blood, the term “granulocytopenia” or “neutropenia” is used. This means that too few neutrophils are present. The lower the neutrophil count and the longer it remains low, the greater the risk of developing a dangerous infection. SYMPTOMS Symptoms of agranulocytosis may include: • Sores in the mouth, throat, or gastrointestinal tract. • Chronic infections of the gums, throat, or skin. • Fever. • Chills. • A life-threatening drop in blood pressure, which may cause weakness or lightheadedness. CAUSES Agranulocytosis may be acquired or inherited. In the acquired form, either the bone marrow cannot produce enough stem cells that mature into granulocytes, or granulocytes are destroyed more quickly than they can be replaced. Usually, other cell types, such as red cells or platelets, are affected, also. There are many different causes of acquired agranulocytosis. These include: • Chemotherapy to treat cancer. • The use of some prescription drugs, particularly certain antibiotics, and anti-thyroid and anti-psychotic medications. • Exposure to toxic substances, such as arsenic or mercury. • Bone marrow failure disorders such as aplastic anemia. • Other medical conditions, such as tumors or some autoimmune diseases. The congenital (present at birth) form of agranulocytosis is caused by a genetic (inherited) abnormality. Infantile genetic agranulocytosis (Kostmann disease) is a rare form of the inherited disease that is present in newborns. TREATMENTS Agranulocytosis can be treated in a number of ways: Stopping a medication that is believed to cause the disease: The doctor may tell you to stop taking the drug for a while to see if you improve. Recovery usually occurs within 10 to 14 days. A different medication may be substituted for the original. If there is no substitute, and your condition is not severe, you might be told to take the drug again while your doctor watches you closely. Antibiotics: These drugs may be used to prevent bacterial infections, and are used to treat infections that have developed. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: If other methods do not work, you might need to take shots of a hormone that stimulates the bone marrow to produce more granulocytes. This hormone is known as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and is made by the body. There is also a synthetic (man-made) version. Studies show that G-CSF can reduce the seriousness of neutropenia (low number of neutrophils) in patients with some cancers. Immune suppression: When an autoimmune cause is suspected, immune-suppressing medications such as prednisone may be used. Bone marrow transplants: For cases that do not respond to other types of treatment, a bone marrow transplant may be needed (if a donor can be found). Bone marrow transplants generally yield the best outcomes for patients who are under 40 years old and in good health. General measures: People with agranulocytosis should stay away from crowds. They should also avoid: contact with people who have infections; fruits and vegetables that cannot be peeled, and; cut flowers or working in the soil.
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Bullous pemphigoid is an acute or chronic autoimmune skin disease, involving the formation of blisters, more appropriately known as bullae, at the space between the skin layers epidermis and dermis. It is classified as a type II hypersensitivity reaction, with the formation of anti-hemidesmosome antibodies.
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Aphasia is a combination of a speech and language disorder caused by damage to the brain that affects about one million individuals within the US. Most often caused by a cerebral vascular accident, which is also known as a stroke, aphasia can cause impairments in speech and language modalities. To be diagnosed with aphasia, a person's speech or language must be significantly impaired in one (or several) of the four communication modalities following acquired brain injury or have significant decline over a short time period (progressive aphasia). The four communication modalities are auditory comprehension, verbal expression, reading and writing, and functional communication. The difficulties of people with aphasia can range from occasional trouble finding words to losing the ability to speak, read, or write, but does not affect intelligence. This also affects visual language such as sign language. In contrast, the use of formulaic expressions in everyday communication is often preserved. One prevalent deficit in the aphasias is anomia, which is a deficit in word finding ability.
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Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by binge eating without subsequent purging episodes. The disorder was first described in 1959 by psychiatrist and researcher Albert Stunkard as "night eating syndrome" (NES), and the term "binge eating " was coined to describe the same binging-type eating behavior without the exclusive nocturnal component. Binge eating is one of the most prevalent eating disorders among adults, though there tends to be less media coverage and research about the disorder in comparison to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Previously considered a topic for further research exploration, binge eating disorder was included in the eating disorders section of the DSM-5 in 2013. BED is present in 0.8% of male U.S. adults and 1.6% of female U.S. adults in a given year.
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A brain tumor or intracranial neoplasm occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain. There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors. Cancerous tumors can be divided into primary tumors that start within the brain, and secondary tumors that have spread from somewhere else, known as brain metastasis tumors. This article deals mainly with tumors that start within the brain. All types of brain tumors may produce symptoms that vary depending on the part of the brain involved. These may include headaches, seizures, problem with vision, vomiting, and mental changes. The headache is classically worst in the morning and goes away with vomiting. More specific problems may include difficulty in walking, speaking and with sensation. As the disease progresses unconsciousness may occur. The cause of most brain tumors is unknown. Risk factors that may occasionally be involved include a number of inherited conditions known as neurofibromatosis as well as exposure to the industrial chemical vinyl chloride, the Epstein-Barr virus, and ionizing radiation. While concern has been raised about mobile phone use, the evidence is not clear. The most common types of primary tumors in adults are: meningiomas (usually benign), and astrocytomas such as glioblastomas. In children, the most common type is a malignant medulloblastoma. Diagnosis is usually by medical examination along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. This is then often confirmed by a biopsy. Based on the findings, the tumors are divided into different grades of severity. Treatment may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Anticonvulsant medication may be needed if seizures occur. Dexamethasone and furosemide may be used to decrease swelling around the tumor. Some tumors grow gradually, requiring only monitoring and possibly needing no further intervention. Treatments that use a person's immune system are being studied. Outcome varies considerably depending on the type of tumor and how far it has spread at diagnosis. Glioblastomas usually have poor outcomes while meningiomas usually have good outcomes. The average five-year survival rate for brain cancer in the United States is 33%.
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, similar to hyperkinetic disorder in the ICD-10) is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder in which there are significant problems with executive functions (e.g., attentional control and inhibitory control) that cause attention deficits, hyperactivity, or impulsiveness which is not appropriate for a person's age. These symptoms must begin by age six to twelve and persist for more than six months for a diagnosis to be made. In school-aged individuals inattention symptoms often result in poor school performance. Although it causes impairment, particularly in modern society, many children have a good attention span for tasks they find interesting. Despite being the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents, the cause in the majority of cases is unknown. The World Health Organization estimates that it affected about 39 million people as of 2013. It affects about 6–7% of children when diagnosed via the DSM-IV criteria and 1–2% when diagnosed via the ICD-10 criteria. Rates are similar between countries and depend mostly on how it is diagnosed. ADHD is diagnosed approximately three times more in boys than in girls. About 30–50% of people diagnosed in childhood continue to have symptoms into adulthood and between 2–5% of adults have the condition. The condition can be difficult to tell apart from other disorders as well as that of high normal activity.
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Athlete's foot (also known as ringworm of the foot, tinea pedum, and moccasin foot) is a common and contagious skin disease that causes itching, scaling, flaking, and sometimes blistering of the affected areas. Its medical name is tinea pedis, a member of the group of diseases or conditions known as tinea, most of which are dermatophytoses (fungal infections of the skin, hair, or nails). Globally, athlete's foot affects about 15% of the population. Tinea pedis is caused by the mold known as Epidermophyton floccosum or molds of the Trichophyton genus of fungi, including T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and T. tonsurans (more common in children). These parasitic fungi are typically transmitted in moist communal areas where people go barefoot, such as around swimming pools or in locker rooms, and require a warm moist environment like the inside of a shoe to incubate. Fungal infection of the foot may be acquired in many ways, such as by walking in an infected locker room, by using an infested bathtub, by sharing a towel used by someone with the disease, by touching the feet with infected fingers (such as after scratching another infected area of the body), or by wearing fungi-contaminated socks or shoes. The fungi may spread to other areas of the body, such as by scratching. The fungi tend to infect areas of skin that are kept warm and moist, such as with insulation (clothes), body heat, and sweat. However, the spread of the infection is not limited to skin. Toe nails become infected with fungi in the same way as the rest of the foot, typically by being trapped with fungi in the warm, dark, moist inside of a shoe.
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ABSCESSED TOOTH Symptoms, Causes & Treatments OVERVIEW A tooth abscess is a pocket of pus that's caused by a bacterial infection. The abscess can occur at different regions of the tooth for different reasons. A periapical (per-e-AP-ih-kul) abscess occurs at the tip of the root, whereas a periodontal (per-e-o-DON-tul) abscess occurs in the gums next to a tooth root. The information here refers specifically to periapical abscesses. A periapical tooth abscess usually occurs as a result of an untreated dental cavity, an injury or prior dental work. Dentists will treat a tooth abscess by draining it and getting rid of the infection. They may be able to save your tooth with a root canal treatment, but in some cases the tooth may need to be pulled. Leaving a tooth abscess untreated can lead to serious, even life-threatening, complications. SYMPTOMS Signs and symptoms of a tooth abscess include: • Severe, persistent, throbbing toothache that can radiate to the jawbone, neck or ear • Sensitivity to hot and cold temperatures • Sensitivity to the pressure of chewing or biting • Fever • Swelling in your face or cheek • Tender, swollen lymph nodes under your jaw or in your neck • Sudden rush of foul-smelling and foul-tasting, salty fluid in your mouth and pain relief if the abscess ruptures CAUSES A periapical tooth abscess occurs when bacteria invade the dental pulp — the innermost part of the tooth that contains blood vessels, nerves and connective tissue. Bacteria enter through either a dental cavity or a chip or crack in the tooth and spread all the way down to the root. The bacterial infection can cause swelling and inflammation at the tip of the root. TREATMENTS The goal of treatment is to get rid of the infection. To accomplish this, your dentist may: • Open up (incise) and drain the abscess. The dentist will make a small cut into the abscess, allowing the pus to drain out, and then wash the area with salt water (saline). • Perform a root canal. This can help eliminate the infection and save your tooth. To do this, your dentist drills down into your tooth, removes the diseased central tissue (pulp) and drains the abscess. He or she then fills and seals the tooth's pulp chamber and root canals. The tooth may be capped with a crown to make it stronger, especially for a molar tooth. If you care for your restored tooth properly, it can last a lifetime. • Pull the affected tooth. If the affected tooth can't be saved, your dentist will pull (extract) the tooth and drain the abscess to get rid of the infection. • Prescribe antibiotics. If the infection is limited to the abscessed area, you may not need antibiotics. But if the infection has spread to nearby teeth, your jaw or other areas, your dentist will likely prescribe antibiotics to stop it from spreading further. He or she may also recommend antibiotics if you have a weakened immune system.
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Bipolar disorder, also known as bipolar affective disorder or manic depression, is a mental disorder characterized by periods of elevated mood and periods of depression. The elevated mood is significant and is known as mania or hypomania depending on the severity or whether there is psychosis. During mania an individual feels or acts abnormally happy, energetic, or irritable. They often make poorly thought out decisions with little regard to the consequences. The need for sleep is usually reduced. During periods of depression there may be crying, poor eye contact with others, and a negative outlook on life. The risk of suicide among those with the disorder is high at greater than 6% over 20 years, while self harm occurs in 30–40%. Other mental health issues such as anxiety disorder and substance use disorder are commonly associated. The cause is not clearly understood, but both genetic and environmental factors play a role. Many genes of small effect contribute to risk. Environmental factors include long term stress and a history of childhood abuse. It is divided into bipolar I disorder if there is at least one manic episode and bipolar II disorder if there are at least one hypomanic episode and one major depressive episode. In those with less severe symptoms of a prolonged duration the condition cyclothymic disorder may be present. If due to drugs or medical problems it is classified separately. Other conditions that may present in a similar manner include substance use disorder, personality disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia as well as a number of medical conditions. Blood tests or medical imaging can be done to rule out other problems, although medical testing is not required for a diagnosis.
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ACHALASIA Symptoms, Causes & Treatments OVERVIEW Achalasia is a rare disorder that makes it difficult for food and liquid to pass into your stomach. Achalasia occurs when nerves in the tube connecting your mouth and stomach (esophagus) become damaged. As a result, the esophagus loses the ability to squeeze food down, and the muscular valve between the esophagus and stomach (lower esophageal sphincter) doesn't fully relax — making it difficult for food to pass into your stomach. There's no cure for achalasia. But symptoms can usually be managed with minimally invasive therapy or surgery. SYMPTOMS The symptoms of achalasia include: • Difficulty swallowing food • Difficulty swallowing both solid and liquid food • Regurgitation of food that is retained in the esophagus. If this happens at night, food may be aspirated into the lungs, a serious medical problem • Chest discomfort from esophageal dilation and/or retained food • Sharp chest pain usually of unclear cause • Heartburn; however, the heartburn is not characteristic of heartburn and is not helped by treatment for heartburn • Loss of weight due to reduced intake of food TREATMENTS Achalasia treatment focuses on relaxing or forcing open the lower esophageal sphincter so that food and liquid can move more easily through your digestive tract. Specific treatment depends on your age and the severity of the condition. Nonsurgical treatment Nonsurgical options include: Pneumatic dilation. A balloon is inserted into the esophageal sphincter and inflated to enlarge the opening. This outpatient procedure may need to be repeated if the esophageal sphincter doesn't stay open. Nearly one-third of people treated with balloon dilation need repeat treatment within six years. Botox (botulinum toxin type A). This muscle relaxant can be injected directly into the esophageal sphincter with an endoscope. The injections may need to be repeated, and repeat injections may make it more difficult to perform surgery later if needed. Botox is generally recommended only for people who aren't good candidates for pneumatic dilation or surgery due to age or overall health. Medication. Your doctor might suggest muscle relaxants such as nitroglycerin (Nitrostat) or nifedipine (Procardia) before eating. These medications have limited treatment effect and severe side effects. Medications are generally considered only if you're not a candidate for pneumatic dilation or surgery, and Botox hasn't helped. Surgery Surgery may be recommended for younger people because nonsurgical treatment tends to be less effective in this group. Surgical options include: Heller myotomy. The surgeon cuts the muscle at the lower end of the esophageal sphincter to allow food to pass more easily into the stomach. The procedure can be done noninvasively (laparoscopic Heller myotomy). People who have a Heller myotomy may later develop gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Fundoplication. The surgeon wraps the top of your stomach around the lower esophageal sphincter, to tighten the muscle and prevent acid reflux. Fundoplication might be performed at the same time as Heller myotomy, to avoid future problems with acid reflux. Fundoplication is usually done with a minimally invasive (laparoscopic) procedure. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). The surgeon uses an endoscope inserted through your mouth and down your throat to create an incision in the inside lining of your esophagus. Then, as in a Heller myotomy, the surgeon cuts the muscle at the lower end of the esophageal sphincter. POEM doesn't include an anti-reflux procedure.
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Overview Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus. The virus is one of several types of hepatitis viruses that cause inflammation and affect your liver's ability to function. Symptoms Hepatitis A signs and symptoms typically don't appear until you've had the virus for a few weeks. But not everyone with hepatitis A develops them. If you do, hepatitis signs and symptoms can include: · Fatigue. · Sudden nausea and vomiting. · Abdominal pain or discomfort, especially on the upper right side beneath your lower ribs (by your liver). · Clay-colored bowel movements. · Loss of appetite. · Low-grade fever. · Dark urine. · Joint pain. · Yellowing of the skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice). · Intense itching. Treatment No specific treatment exists for Hepatitis A. Your body will clear the hepatitis A virus on its own. In most cases of hepatitis A, the liver heals within six months with no lasting damage.
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