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Anticonvulsants (antiepileptic drugs)

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This is a brief summary of anticonvulsants, or medicines used to treat epilepsy. I created this presentation with Google Slides. Image were created or taken from Wikimedia Commons I created this video with the YouTube Video Editor. ADDITIONAL TAGS: Anticonvulsants Drug Mechanism of action Modern approach Other indications Side effects (unique/notable listed first) Interaction Metab Carbamazepine Na+ channel blocker: binds inactive Na channel, extend inactivation simple partial, complex partial, secondary generalized (narrow) bipolar disorder, trigeminal neuralgia Hyponatremia... bone marrow suppression; hepatotox; sedation; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; bone demineraliz; Stevens-Johnson syndrome p450 induction hepatic Phenytoin Na+ channel blocker: complex actions simple partial, complex partial, secondary generalized (narrow) n/a Bone demineralization; gingival hyperplasia (long term use); hypotension, arrhythmias, tissue necrosis ( IV admin)... bone marrow suppression; hepatotox; sedation; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; Stevens-Johnson syndrome p450 induction hepatic Lamotrigine Na+ channel blocker: selective for excitatory neuron NT like glutamate all seizure types (broad spectrum) bipolar disorder; antidepressant effects Stevens-Johnson syndrome (life threatening rash)... sedation; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; bone demineraliz; Stevens-Johnson syndrome p450; OCPs decrease efficacy hepatic Ethosuximide Ca2+ channel blocker (α subunit, T type, thalamic) absence seizures (narrow spectrum) n/a; just first line for absence seizures sedation; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; bone demineraliz; Stevens-Johnson syndrome n/a hepatic Phenobarbital GABA antagonist: augments GABA receptor (Cl channel) simple partial, complex partial, secondary generalized (narrow) Tremors (similar to primidone for essential tremor) Hyperactivity, addiction, sedation... bone marrow suppression; hepatotox; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; bone demineraliz; Stevens-Johnson syndrome p450 induction hepatic Valproate many: blocks Na, enhance GABA, block Ca all seizure types (broad spectrum) Migraine prophylaxis, bipolar disorder fetal malformation (strongest teratogen); weight gain, tremor, hair loss, fulminant hepatic failure (limits use in kids); bone marrow suppression... sedation; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; bone demineraliz; Stevens-Johnson syndrome p450 inhibitor hepatic Topiramate many: blocks Na, enhance GABA, block glutamate (NMDA) receptor all seizure types (broad spectrum) Migraine prophylaxis Cognitive impairment, weight loss, kidney stones... sedation; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; bone demineraliz; Stevens-Johnson syndrome Decreases efficacy of OCPs 70:30 hepatic: renal Gabapentin unknown or partially known mechanism simple partial, complex partial, secondary generalized (narrow) Neuropathic pain, chronic pain Ankle edema, weight gain... sedation; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; bone demineraliz; Stevens-Johnson syndrome Antacids (limit bioavailability) renal Pregabalin unknown or partially known mechanism simple partial, complex partial, secondary generalized (narrow) Neuropathic pain; fibromyalgia Ankle edema, weight gain... sedation; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; bone demineraliz; Stevens-Johnson syndrome Antacids (limit bioavailability) renal Levetiracetam unknown or partially known mechanism all seizure types (broad spectrum) n/a Depression, behavioral/psychiatric issues (up to 15%)... sedation; dizziness; n/v; double vision; ataxia; fetal malform; bone demineraliz; Stevens-Johnson syndrome n/a renal
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Текстовые комментарии (17)
Liz Camsters (6 месяцев назад)
Very interesting and complete videos! I buy my anticonvulsants online at this trusted pharmacy https://www.pharmacy-xl.com/anticonvulsants-medications-medicines-drugstore-epilepsy-seizures-treatment-anticonvulsant-drugs-without-prescription-online-pharmacy-xl.html and my personal favourite is Lyrica https://www.pharmacy-xl.com/lyrica-pills-generic-anticonvulsant-75-150-mg-tablets-pregabalin-nerve-pain-seizures-pfizer-online-pharmacy-xl.html which is a cost effective and good drug with almost no side effect for me.
Tntpker (7 месяцев назад)
Topiramate acts more on AMPA/kainate receptors
JAY KANUCK (8 месяцев назад)
The side effects are life altering, I always feel sedated, I zero energy. Very hard to get motivated. I experimented way back when I was younger, I Stopped my Meds. The Energy that I had was surreal. I felt Amazing. Reality set in & I started taking my Meds again. I take Carbamazepine. I do I cure the side effects Sedation in particular?
Luciann Gojich (9 месяцев назад)
Do you have a link for the spread sheet?
Nativechique111 PepionFam (10 месяцев назад)
I'm decreasing my tegretol m getting myself off. I been 20 pounds heavier. I'm on it for bipolar. I wonder if my drvrealized I died from hyponatremia in the military? And my teeth I lost two n they chipped! Wow. I want to try keppra
tarseal1 (11 месяцев назад)
GET KEPPRA OFF THE MARKET VERY DANGEROUS DRUG. BY THE (WAY DO YOU WAKE UP WANTING TO KILL PEOPLE)
Deda Mitar (11 месяцев назад)
I was on levitiracetam worst drug in the world i went from 75 kg to 103 kg and deep depression and depersonalization..
Rj (1 год назад)
its not absaaaaance seizure, its absence
Sean LaFrentz (3 месяца назад)
It actually is said that way. A French doctor first named it
Muhammad Ali (1 год назад)
THANKS ALOT SIR, VERY PRECISE SPECIFIC TO THE POINT , REFRESHER VIDEO GOD BLESS YOU
Josh (1 год назад)
I have epilepsy and use the Keppra or Levec whatever its called pill and I hate its side effects mostly migraine wish there was a cure for this seizure life.
Josh Athwal (1 год назад)
Phenobarbital isn't a GABA antagonist though?
Ali Alsinan (1 год назад)
You got to change phenobarbital to GABA agonist because it makes no sense for to be antagonist and augment the receptors. but good video overall
B DFlower (1 год назад)
Is Phenobarbital not a GABA agonist? As it helps increase Cl- into the neurone, so that there is hyperpolarisation?
Josh Miller (1 год назад)
Yeah it is! I have no idea where the antagonist has come from, it binds to the Barbiturate receptor on the GABAa receptor which increases the duration of opening, of the GABA, allowing a greater influx in Cl- ions, and therefore hyper polarisation of the pre-synaptic axon, decreasing the likelihood of creating a potential.
Ashley Stewart (1 год назад)
Surprised not to see benzodiazepines touched on, particularly clonazepam. Tiagabine and vigabatrin enjoy significant use. Pregabalins use in anxiety is also starting to become more widespread.
Hafizah Hoshni (2 года назад)
Thanks a lot :DD i think you should make another website to compile all the charts .

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